Skipper on Daisy

Rank & Status Definitionsline

Plant Status Codes and Definitions

PE

Pennsylvania Endangered - Plant species which are in danger of extinction throughout most of their natural range within this Commonwealth, if critical habitat is not maintained or if the species is greatly exploited by man. This classification shall also include any populations of plant species that have been classified as Pennsylvania Extirpated, but which subsequently are found to exist in this Commonwealth.

PT

Pennsylvania Threatened - Plant species which may become endangered throughout most or all of their natural range within this Commonwealth, if critical habitat is not maintained to prevent their future decline, or if the species is greatly exploited by man.

PR

Pennsylvania Rare - Plant species which are uncommon within this Commonwealth. All species of the native wild plants classified as Disjunct, Endemic, Limit of Range and Restricted are included within the Pennsylvania Rare classification.

Disjunct

Significantly separated from their main area of distribution

Endemic

Confined to a specialized habitat.

Limit of Range

At or near the periphery of their natural distribution

Restricted

Found in specialized habitats or habitats infrequent in Pennsylvania.

PX

Pennsylvania Extirpated - Plant species believed by the Department to be extinct within this Commonwealth. These plants may or may not be in existence outside the Commonwealth.

PV

Pennsylvania Vulnerable - Plant species which are in danger of population decline within Commonwealth because of their beauty, economic value, use as a cultivar, or other factors which indicate that persons may seek to remove these species from their native habitats.

TU

Tentatively Undetermined - A classification of plant species which are believed to be in danger of population decline, but which cannot presently be included within another classification due to taxanomic uncertainties, limited evidence within historical records, or insufficient data.

N

No current legal status exists, but is under review for future listing.

Native Plant Species Legislative Authority: Title 17 Chapter 45, Conservation of Native Wild Plants, January 1, 1988; Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources.

Wild Birds and Mammals Status Codes and Definitions

PE

Pennsylvania Endangered - Species in imminent danger of extinction or extirpation throughout their range in Pennsylvania if the deleterious factors affecting them continue to operate. These are: 1) species whose numbers have already been reduced to a critically low level or whose habitat has been so drastically reduced or degraded that immediate action is required to prevent their extirpation from the Commonwealth; or 2) species whose extreme rarity or peripherality places them in potential danger of precipitous declines or sudden extirpation throughout their range in Pennsylvania; or 3) species that have been classified as "Pennsylvania Extirpated", but which are subsequently found to exist in Pennsylvania as long as the above conditions 1 or 2 are met; or 4) species determined to be "Endangered" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Public Law 93 205 (87 Stat. 884), as amended.

PT

Pennsylvania Threatened - Species that may become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout their range in Pennsylvania unless the casual factors affecting the organism are abated. These are: 1) species whose populations within the Commonwealth are decreasing or have been heavily depleted by adverse factors and while not actually endangered, are still in critical condition; 2) species whose populations may be relatively abundant in the Commonwealth but are under severe threat from serious adverse factors that have been identified and documented; or 3) species whose populations are rare or peripheral and in possible danger of severe decline throughout their range in Pennsylvania; or 4) species determined to be "Threatened" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Public Law 93205 (87 Stat. 884), as amended, that are not listed as "Pennsylvania Endangered".

Wild Birds and Mammals Legislative Authority: Title 34 Chapter 133, Game and Wildlife Code, revised Dec. 1, 1990, Pennsylvania Game Commission.

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Aquatic Organisms Status Codes and Definitions

PE

Pennsylvania Endangered - All species declared by: 1) the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior to be threatened with extinction and appear on the Endangered Species List or the Native Endangered Species List published in the Federal Register; or 2) have been declared by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission, Executive Director to be threatened with extinction and appear on the Pennsylvania Endangered Species List published by the Pennsylvania Bulletin.

PT

Pennsylvania Threatened - All species declared by: 1) the Secretary of the United States Department of the Interior to be in such small numbers throughout their range that they may become endangered if their environment worsens, and appear on a Threatened Species List published in the Federal Register; or 2) have been declared by the Pennsylvania Fish Commission Executive Director to be in such small numbers throughout their range that they may become endangered if their environment worsens and appear on the Pennsylvania Threatened Species List published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin.

PC

Animals that could become endangered or threatened in the future. All of these are uncommon, have restricted distribution or are at risk because of certain aspects of their biology.

N

No current legal status, but is under review for future listing.

Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Aquatic Organisms Legislative Authority: Title 30, Chapter 75, Fish and Boat Code, revised February 9, 1991; Pennsylvania Fish Commission.

Pennsylvania Biological Survey (PBS) Suggested Status Definitions

PE

Pennsylvania Endangered - Species in imminent danger of extinction or extirpation throughout their range in Pennsylvania if the deleterious factors affecting them continue to operate. These are: 1) species whose numbers have already been reduced to a critically low level or whose habitat has been so drastically reduced or degraded that immediate action is required to prevent their extirpation from the Commonwealth; or 2) species whose extreme rarity or peripherality places them in potential danger of precipitous declines or sudden extirpation throughout their range in Pennsylvania; or 3) species that have been classified as "Pennsylvania Extirpated", but which are subsequently found to exist in Pennsylvania as long as the above conditions 1 or 2 are met; or 4) species determined to be "Endangered" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Public Law 93 205 (87 Stat. 884), as amended.

PT

Pennsylvania Threatened - Species that may become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout their range in Pennsylvania unless the casual factors affecting the organism are abated. These are: 1) species whose populations within the Commonwealth are decreasing or have been heavily depleted by adverse factors and while not actually endangered, are still in critical condition; 2) species whose populations may be relatively abundant in the Commonwealth but are under severe threat from serious adverse factors that have been identified and documented; or 3) species whose populations are rare or peripheral and in possible danger of severe decline throughout their range in Pennsylvania; or 4) species determined to be "Threatened" pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 1973, Public Law 93205 (87 Stat. 884), as amended, that are not listed as "Pennsylvania Endangered".

PR

Pennsylvania Rare - Plant species which are uncommon within this Commonwealth. All species of the native wild plants classified as Disjunct, Endemic, Limit of Range and Restricted are included within the Pennsylvania Rare classification.

Disjunct

Significantly separated from their main area of distribution

Endemic

Confined to a specialized habitat.

Limit of Range

At or near the periphery of their natural distribution

Restricted

Found in specialized habitats or habitats infrequent in Pennsylvania.

CP

Candidate Proposed - Species comprising taxa for which the Pennsylvania Biological Survey (PBS) currently has substantial information on hand to support the biological appropriateness of proposing to list as Endangered or Threatened.

CA

Candidate at Risk - Species that although relatively abundant now are particularly vulnerable to certain types of exploitation or environmental modification.

CR

Candidate Rare - Species which exist only in one of a few restricted geographic areas or habitats within Pennsylvania, or they occur in low numbers over a relatively broad area of the Commonwealth.

CU

Condition Undetermined - Species for which there is insufficient data available to provide an adequate basis for their assignment to other classes or categories.

PX

Pennsylvania Extirpated - Species that have disappeared from Pennsylvania since 1600 but still exist elsewhere.

DL

Delisted - Species which were once listed but are now cited for delisting.

N

No current legal status, but is under study for future listing.

Federal Status Codes and Definitions

LE

Listed Endangered - A species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

LT

Listed Threatened - Any species which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.

LELT

Listed Endangered in part of range; listed Threatened in the remaining part.

PE

Proposed Endangered - Taxa proposed to be listed as endangered.

PT

Proposed Threatened - Taxa proposed to be listed as threatened.

C

Candidate for listing.

SC

Special concern

PDL

Proposal for delisting

SAE or SAT

Listed as Endangered or Threatened because of similarity of appearance.

PSAE or PSAT

Proposed Endangered or Threatened because of similarity of appearance.

XE

Essential Experimental population.

XN

Nonessential Experimental population.

Null Value

Usually indicates that the taxon does not have any federal status. However, because of potential lag time between publication in the Federal Register and entry in the central databases and refresh of this website, some taxa may have a status which does not yet appear.

Implied Federal Status Notations

value,value

Combination values. The taxon has one status currently, but a more recent proposal has been made to change that status with no final action yet published. For example, "LE, PDL" indicates that the species is currently listed as endangered, but has been proposed for delisting. Or, the taxon has two different statuses throughout its range. More specifically, it has a status in one portion of its range and a different status in the remainder of its range.

(value)

Flagged Values. The taxon itself is not named in the Federal Register as having U.S. ESA status; however, it does have U.S. ESA status as a result of its taxonomic relationship to a named entity. For example, if a species is federally listed as endangered, then by default, all of its recognized subspecies also have endangered status. The subspecies in this example would have the value "LE ()" under U.S. ESA Status. Likewise, if all of a species' infraspecific taxa (rangewide) have the same U.S. ESA status, then that status appears in the record for the "full" species as well. In this case, if the taxon at the species level is not mentioned in the Federal Register, the status appears in NatureServe Explorer with a flag ().

(value, value)

Combination flagged values. The taxon itself is not named in the Federal Register as having U.S. ESA status; however, all of its infraspecific taxa (rangewide) have official status but two or more of the taxa do not have the same status. In this case, a combination of the statuses shown with a flag () indicates the statuses that apply to infraspecific taxa or populations within this taxon.

(PS)

partial status. Indicates "partial status"—status in only a portion of the species' range. Typically indicated in a "full" species record where at least one but not all of a species' infraspecific taxa or populations has U.S. ESA status.

(PS:value)

partial status. Indicates "partial status"—status in only a portion of the species' range. The value of that status appears because the listed entity (usually a population defined by geopolitical boundaries or defined administratively, such as experimental populations) does not have an individual entry in NatureServe Explorer. Information about the listed entity can be found in reports for the associated species.

Native Plant and Animal Species Legislative Authority:United States Endangered Species Act of 1973: Public Law 93-205. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

State Wildife Action Plan Priority Ranks

Source: Pennsylvania State Wildlife Action Plan

TIERING Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy-PRIORITY SPECIES IN PENNSYLVANIA

Conservation Tier 1: Immediate Concern

This tier is generally comprised of those species that are most at risk and/or are experiencing the most dramatic declines across their range. “Red species” include globally rare or imperiled species, nationally rare or imperiled species, as well as those species in PA and/or the northeastern U.S. that are declining to the point of requiring Federal listing in the near future. Species were included in this list if they fit within any of the following status categories:

  • Natural Heritage Global rank of G1-G3
  • Federally Endangered/Threatened or Federally-Proposed Endangered/Threatened
  • Northeast Region priority species warranting Federal pre-listing status reviews and/or listing consideration (as determined by the Northeast Non-game Technical Committee)
  • Partners in Flight priority I (High Continental Importance) and/or IIA (High Regional Concern) that are critically imperiled in PA (S1)
  • PA “Responsibility” species that are critically imperiled in PA (S1). (Responsibility species are those species in which core populations occur in PA and/or a significant proportion (> 5-10%) of the regional population occurs in PA so that PA has a high responsibility for conserving the species.)
  • Pennsylvania Endangered - if the loss of the species in PA will have a significant regional, national or global impact (i.e. the PA occurrence represents a disjunct or peripheral population that is likely genetically distinct)
  • Expert opinion regarding mitigating factors, such as species distribution and abundance, severity of threatening processes, rate of decline, etc

Congress has stated repeatedly that the overall goal of the State Wildlife Grants program is endangered species prevention. Although Federally-listed species are included in this Conservation Tier, it is expected that SWG funds will be directed primarily to those species which currently do not receive conservation funding through other Federal programs such as the Endangered Species Act.

The goal in managing these species is to increase populations and protect key habitats to the point that Federal listing can be prevented (and ideally, reversed). These species likely will require direct and focused management attention at both the species and habitat level. Responsibility species that fall within the Immediate Concern category represent the highest-priority targets for the CWCS for they represent the most critical conservation issues in the Commonwealth – imperiled species for which Pennsylvania has high responsibility. Responsibility species are indicated by an “R” in the following listings.

Conservation Tier 2 - High-level Concern

This tier is comprised of nationally and/or regionally significant species that are vulnerable in Pennsylvania. “Orange species” include species with small, localized and vulnerable populations, species with limited dispersal, species with fragmented or isolated populations, and/or species in need of additional research to determine status. Species were included in this list if they fit within any of the following status categories:

  • Natural Heritage Global rank of G4 / Natural Heritage State rank of S1-S2
  • Partners in Flight Priority I (high continental importance), IIA species that are vulnerable in PA (S2S3)
  • Partners in Flight Tier IIB, IIC species that are imperiled in PA (S1)
  • Northeast Region priority species that are imperiled (S1) or vulnerable (S2S3) in PA
  • “Responsibility” species (i.e. core populations occur in PA) that are vulnerable in PA (S2S3)
  • Regionally-significant species likely to be experiencing declines/vulnerability, but information lacking to determine status
  • Pennsylvania Threatened – if the disjunct or peripheral population in PA is likely to be genetically distinct
  • Species in need of additional research to determine status (SU)
  • Expert opinion regarding mitigating factors, such as species distribution and abundance, severity of threatening processes, rate of decline, etc.

Goals in managing these species are: 1) to gather adequate information to make a status determination and 2) to ensure the continued viability of populations and protect key habitats to the point that vulnerable populations are secure and risks are minimized to the extent feasible. Many of these species will require direct and focused habitat management and protection in order for their populations to be stabilized. Responsibility species that fall within the High Level Concern category represent high-priority targets for the CWCS. Responsibility species are indicated by an ‘R’ in the following listings.

Conservation Tier 3 – Responsibility Species

Responsibility species are those species in which core populations occur in PA and/or a significant proportion (> 5-10%) of the regional population occurs in PA so that PA has a high responsibility for conserving the species. This conservation tier includes species which may be relatively abundant and/or locally common AND for which Pennsylvania serves as a “population core,” i.e. a significant proportion of the species’ population occurs in the Commonwealth.

  • “Responsibility” species (i.e. core populations occur in PA) that are apparently secure in PA (S4, S5).
  • Expert opinion regarding mitigating factors, such as species distribution and abundance, severity of threatening processes, rate of decline, long-term outlook, etc.

Inclusion in this conservation tier implies that Pennsylvania has a high global, national or regional responsibility for maintaining the species. Therefore, the main focus in managing these species is to ensure the continued viability of core populations, protect key habitats, and establish monitoring efforts as needed. It is anticipated that responsibility species which are still currently abundant can be protected through prudent attention to habitat management.

Conservation Tier 4 – Pennsylvania Vulnerable

This tier is comprised of those species that are most at risk and/or are experiencing the most dramatic declines within the borders of the Commonwealth, but are not at risk at the regional, national, or global level.

  • Natural Heritage Global rank of G5 AND State rank of S1 or S2 (if the PA population is not believed to be genetically distinct)
  • Natural Heritage Global rank of G4 AND State rank of S3, SZ, and/or PC (if the PA population is not believed to be genetically distinct)
  • Partners in Flight priority IIB, IIC species that are vulnerable in PA (S3)
  • Pennsylvania Endangered - if the loss of the species in PA has limited global, national, or regional impact, i.e. the disjunct or peripheral population in PA is unlikely to be genetically distinct
  • PA Threatened – if the disjunct or peripheral population in PA is unlikely to be genetically distinct
  • Peripheral species – species that are rare in PA but are secure in their core range
  • Pennsylvania Candidate species
  • Expert opinion regarding mitigating factors, such as species distribution and abundance, severity of threatening processes, rate of decline, etc

This tier represents an important management dilemma involving the trade-off between protecting endangered/rare “oddities” versus proactively managing species for which PA serves an important role in their survival. One of the management needs for this group of species is to conduct genetic analysis to determine whether Pennsylvania populations are genetically unique from those in the rest of the species’ range. Technical committees of the Pennsylvania Biological Survey, and other taxonomic experts, will assist the Commissions in identifying the issues involving peripheral species and determining the appropriate management response within the Commonwealth on a species-by-species basis.

Conservation Tier 5 – Maintenance Concern

This conservation priority tier represents species that are fairly secure in Pennsylvania, but for which the PA Biological Survey recommends some level of management attention. Many of these species, although still considered abundant and fairly secure, have undergone recent declines that should be addressed. Species also were included in this tier if they serve as an indicator for high-quality habitats. Species were included in this list if they fit within any of the following status categories:

  • Partners in Flight Priority I, IIA species that are apparently secure in PA (S4, S5)
  • Partners in Flight priority IIB, IIC species that are apparently secure in PA (S4,S5)
  • Northeast Region priority species that are apparently secure in PA (S4)
  • Flagship or indicator species that may be used to monitor the effectiveness of habitat management efforts.

The main focus in managing these species is to ensure the continued viability of core populations, protect key habitats, and establish monitoring efforts as needed. It is anticipated that most of these species can be protected through prudent attention to habitat management.

State Rank Codes and Definitions

S1

Critically Imperiled - Critically imperiled in the nation or state because of extreme rarity (often 5 or fewer occurrences) or because of some factor(s) such as very steep declines making it especially vulnerable to extirpation from the state.

S2

Imperiled - Imperiled in the nation or state because of rarity due to very restricted range, very few populations (often 20 or fewer), steep declines, or other factors making it very vulnerable to extirpation from the nation or state.

S3

Vulnerable - Vulnerable in the nation or state due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation.

S4

Apparently Secure - Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors.

S5

Secure - Common, widespread, and abundant in the nation or state.

S#S#

Range Rank - A numeric range rank (e.g., S2S3 or S1S3) is used to indicate any range of uncertainty about the status of the species or ecosystem.

SNR

Not Ranked - State conservation status not yet assessed.

SU

Unknown - Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting information about status or trends.

SX

Presumed Extinct - Species or community is believed to be extirpated from the nation or state. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.

SH

Possibly Extinct (Historical) - Species or community occurred historically in the nation or state/province, and there is some possibility that it may be rediscovered. Its presence may not have been verified in the past 20-40 years. A species or community could become NH or SH without such a 20-40 year delay if the only known occurrences in a nation or state were destroyed or if it had been extensively and unsuccessfully looked for. The NH or SH rank is reserved for species or communities for which some effort has been made to relocate occurrences, rather than simply using this status for all elements not known from verified extant occurrences.

SNA

Not Applicable - A conservation status rank is not applicable because the species is not a suitable target for conservation activities.

Breeding Status Qualifiers for Migratory Species

B

Breeding - Conservation status refers to the breeding population of the species in the nation or state/province.

N

Nonbreeding - Conservation status refers to the non-breeding population of the species in the nation or state/province.

M

Migrant - Migrant species occurring regularly on migration at particular staging areas or concentration spots where the species might warrant conservation attention. Conservation status refers to the aggregating transient population of the species in nation or state/province.

NatureServe Ranks

Global Rank Codes and Definitions

G1

Critically Imperiled - At very high risk of extinction due to extreme rarity (often 5 or fewer populations), very steep declines, or other factors.

G2

Imperiled - At high risk of extinction due to very restricted range, very few populations (often 20 or fewer), steep declines, or other factors.

G3

Vulnerable - At moderate risk of extinction due to a restricted range, relatively few populations (often 80 or fewer), recent and widespread declines, or other factors.

G4

Apparently Secure - Uncommon but not rare; some cause for long-term concern due to declines or other factors.

G5

Secure - Common; widespread and abundant.

G#G#

Range Rank - A numeric range rank (e.g., G2G3, G1G3) is used to indicate the range of uncertainty about the exact status of a taxon or ecosystem type.

GNR

Not Ranked - Not ranked at the global level. Applies to natural communities that have been designated at the state level but not yet reviewed globally.

GU

Unknown - Possibly in peril range wide but status uncertain; need more information.

GX

Presumed Extinct - Believed to be extinct throughout its range. Not located despite intensive searches of historic sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.

GH

Possibly Extinct - Known from only historical occurrences. Still some hope of rediscovery.

NatureServe Ranks